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The Red Badge of Courage

The Red Badge of Courage Summary


Here you will find a The Red Badge of Courage summary (Stephen Crane's book).
We begin with a summary of the entire book, and then you can read each individual chapter's summary by visiting the links on the "Chapters" section.

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Last Updated: Monday 1 Jan, 2024

The Red Badge of Courage Summary Overview

During the American Civil War, a Union regiment, including a new recruit named Henry Fleming, has been stationed along a river for weeks, waiting for orders. Henry is anxious about his own bravery and is worried he might flee when faced with battle. A rumor spreads that they will soon march, and eventually, they do, ending up near a battlefield. The enemy launches an attack, and surrounded by his fellow soldiers, Henry finds himself unable to escape even if he wanted to. He participates in the fight, his actions automatic as he becomes part of the war machine, and they successfully repel the enemy. However, his calm doesn't last. When the enemy makes another charge, fear grips Henry and he flees across the battleground, convincing himself he made the right choice. As he roams, he hears that his regiment held their ground successfully, which fills him with shame. He then encounters injured soldiers and envies them, believing that their wounds are a symbol of their bravery. He runs into a man, Jim Conklin, whom he recognizes despite his serious injuries. He promises to support Jim, but when Jim runs off to die, Henry can only watch helplessly. He also abandons another soldier after being unable to handle his questions about Henry's own injuries. Henry eventually reunites with his regiment after being mistaken for wounded when he gets hit on the head with a rifle by a fleeing soldier. The next day, they return to the battlefield, where Henry fights fiercely, driven by his memory of Jim. Despite some insults from an officer, Henry and his friend Wilson gain recognition as the regiment's best fighters after a successful charge where Henry carries the flag. They engage in more brutal battles, with Henry continuing to hold the flag high. Although he is proud of his bravery, he feels guilty about his earlier cowardice and abandonment of the injured soldier. However, he comes to accept his experiences as part of his transformation. As he anticipates peace, he feels a confident sense of maturity within himself.

chapter 1

An army awakens beside a river on a chilly, misty morning. Jim Conklin, a tall soldier, hurries back to camp after overhearing a rumor while washing his clothes: they will march into battle the next day. The news sparks excitement and arguments among the men, all of whom have yet to see combat. Young private Henry Fleming takes in the conversation before retreating to his sleeping quarters to reflect. Henry has always dreamed of the heroism and grandeur of battle and now faces the prospect of experiencing it firsthand tomorrow. He questions whether modern men can match the valor of ancient Greek warriors. Despite the mundanity of life conditioning men, he believes that battle offers a chance to demonstrate their worth. This belief led him to enlist. He recalls his mother's disapproval but also her advice: always act honorably and fulfill your duties, even if it means risking your life. She assures him she can manage without him if necessary. Henry also reminisces about his trip to Washington, where his regiment assembled. The hearty meals, adoring girls, and encouraging men made him feel like a hero. However, the ensuing months of dull and static camp life have dulled his dreams of glory. Now, his focus is on survival. As the rumored battle looms, Henry questions his ability to face combat. He is uncertain whether he will stand firm or flee in cowardice. Upon Jim's return to the tent, Henry inquires about his stance on running from battle. Jim's response that he'd likely follow the other men's actions provides Henry with some comfort, knowing his doubts about his bravery aren't unique.

chapter 2

The soldiers are informed the following day that Jim was wrong; they're not moving out. Henry's concern over his bravery persists, with him constantly looking for signs of fear in his peers. Eventually, the regiment receives orders and starts to march. The soldiers spend their time speculating about an impending battle, while Henry remains lost in his own thoughts. The troops find amusement in a heavyset soldier's failed attempt to steal a horse, stopped by the young female owner. They set up camp when night falls. Henry, wallowing in self-pity, questions Wilson about whether he could see himself fleeing from a fight. Wilson responds with conviction, claiming he would stand his ground, which leaves Henry feeling increasingly isolated.

chapter 3

The soldiers, growing increasingly weary, continue their march in a dark wooded area. Henry's fears of enemy attacks mount, but their absence leads him back to considering his faction as a mere "blue demonstration." Suddenly, Jim's wake-up call and distant gunshots shift the mood as the regiment dives into action. Amidst the running soldiers, Henry contemplates the impossibility of escape, fearing he'd be crushed by the stampede. As they bypass a fallen soldier, Henry's vulnerability escalates, leaving him resentful towards the officers leading them into imminent peril. Stoppage along the way allows the men to craft makeshift trenches using branches and stones, only to ditch them due to the relentless march. This repeated action chips away at their morale, fostering doubts about their leadership's ability and decisiveness. As the battle gets closer with intensifying gunfire, Wilson shares his premonition of death with Henry. Handing over a yellow envelope, he requests Henry to deliver it to his family in case of his demise.

chapter 4

Amid the turmoil of the battlefield, the unit halts in a small wood. Their lieutenant receives a gunshot wound to his hand. The green 304th regiment lines up, ridiculed by more seasoned fighters. As the enemy troops approach with a deafening roar, Henry and his comrades arm themselves, bracing for the encounter. Henry, however, is tormented by the thought that he might reveal his true self not through courageous battle, but by his haste to flee when faced with the harsh realities of war.

chapter 5

The tension breaks as the enemy army launches an assault, triggering Henry's regiment to retaliate. The commanding officer barks orders from behind. Faced with the impending enemy, Henry’s feeling of isolation fades, and he sees himself as a mere part in the grand scheme of war. His individuality is swallowed by unity with his comrades, as the instinct to fight silences his fearful thoughts. Amid the raging battle, Henry mechanically repeats the cycle of shooting and reloading his weapon. A "red rage" engulfs the soldiers who chant a "wild, barbaric song" amidst the chaos. An officer disciplines a soldier attempting to flee from the frontline. The captain is struck by a bullet and collapses. Finally, the enemy begins to withdraw. A victorious cheer erupts from Henry’s regiment as they revel in the moment of triumph. As Henry surveys his surroundings, he is taken aback by the sight of the sunlit treetops and the bright, azure sky, oblivious to the carnage on the battlefield.

chapter 6

After waking up, Henry is pleased with himself for withstanding the fright of war and demonstrating his bravery. The regiment's members show off their pride and admire each other's courage and valor, celebrating with handshakes. However, someone announces that the enemy is attacking again. The men sigh in disappointment and get ready to counter the attack. This time, Henry doesn't feel like he's a part of a large unit. He admires the enemy soldiers for their relentless determination which causes him to panic. Soldiers from Henry's regiment start to desert one by one, and soon, Henry also flees. Fearing an imminent enemy onslaught, Henry runs from the battlefield. As he darts past a group of gunmen, he feels sorry for them for being directly in the enemy's path. He also passes by a commanding general and is overcome with a desire to strangle him for his poor leadership. He's surprised when he hears the general announce that the enemy has been repelled.

chapter 7

Henry suddenly feels bitter towards his comrades who didn't flee the battle and instead triumphed over the enemy. He feels as if their ignorance has wronged him. To ease his guilt and inadequacy, he convinces himself that any intellectual soldier would understand that self-preservation is paramount. Lost in these thoughts, he ventures deeper into the wilderness. Away from the battlefield, Henry finds solace in nature. He throws a pinecone at a squirrel, which promptly dashes up a tree. This reaction confirms his belief that escaping danger is an inherent instinct in all creatures. He stumbles upon a leaf-covered clearing that reminds him of a chapel. In this secluded spot, he finds a dead soldier clad in a blue uniform similar to his own, his face crawling with ants. The sight leaves Henry horrified, and he bolts from the clearing, half expecting the lifeless body to come alive and call out after him.

chapter 8

Marching through the wilderness, Henry catches the fiery echoes of a distant battle. Driven by curiosity, he moves closer. He encounters a group of injured soldiers limping down a path, his attention drawn to one ghost-like figure among them. Joining the group, Henry is accosted by a soldier with severe injuries who engages him in conversation. Despite Henry's attempts to ignore him, the man continues to discuss the valor and determination of their comrades, expressing his pride in their refusal to retreat. When the man inquires about Henry's own injuries, fear overtakes him and he quickly departs.

chapter 9

Henry lags behind to avoid the ragged soldier. Seeing the wounded, he feels envious, considering their injuries as marks of bravery—"red badge of courage"—a testament he wished he had. He passes by a familiar ghost-like soldier, identifying him as Jim Conklin. He exclaims, "Gawd! Jim Conklin!" Jim responds tiredly, revealing that he's been shot. Jim voices his fear of being trampled by artillery wagons. Henry assures him of his care. Yet, Jim soon demands to be left alone. Confused, Henry tries to guide Jim to the fields, away from the wagons, but Jim breaks free, running towards a cluster of bushes. Henry and the ragged soldier trail him, witnessing Jim's violent convulsion, collapse, and death. Observing Jim's blue jacket fall off, revealing a side that appeared "as if it had been chewed by wolves," Henry is overwhelmed with anger over his friend's demise. He furiously shakes his fist towards the battlefield.

chapter 10

Overwhelmed by how Jim managed to run despite his fatal wound, the tattered man and Henry move away from the lifeless body. The tattered man confesses he feels “pretty damn’ bad,” stirring Henry's fear of witnessing another demise. Despite this, the tattered man assures he won't die because his children depend on him. Mistakenly identifying Henry as his friend, Tom Jamison, he advises him to seek medical attention for his supposed wound. He recalls an instance of a man who was unaware of how critical his head wound was until his death. Haunted, Henry abandons the dying tattered man. As Henry departs, the tattered man calls after him, losing his grip on reality. Henry, tormented by the tattered man’s inquiries about his wound, dreads the thought of anyone uncovering “his crime.”

chapter 11

As the clamor of warfare escalates to a "furnace roar," Henry stumbles upon a slow-moving line of soldiers and wagons. He observes a troop of infantry rushing to join the fight, causing him to feel like he's watching a parade of chosen ones. Their fervor amplifies his own sense of despair and self-doubt, highlighting his insufficiencies. He experiences a fleeting wave of fierce excitement, almost venturing towards the battlefield, but his practicality prevails: he is weaponless, hungry, thirsty, and physically exhausted. However, he stays nearby, yearning to determine the victor. If his side fails, he convinces himself it would somehow vindicate his decisions, suggesting a kind of prophetic insight that foresaw the defeat. To assuage his guilt for wishing his comrades misfortune, he reminds himself how his army has always bounced back from previous defeats. Yet, he can't shake off his guilt and labels himself an extreme villain, "the most unutterably selfish man in existence." Convinced that his blue-clad comrades can't possibly lose, Henry plans to devise an explanation for his actions to give to his fellow soldiers upon their return, hoping to avoid their disdain when he reunites with them. However, he struggles to come up with a plausible excuse, sparking a fear that he is destined to face the derision of his comrades. He worries his name will become synonymous with cowardice.

chapter 12

Henry has his first glimpse of war as he observes enemy troops engulfing the infantrymen he once admired. The blue-clad soldiers break formation and begin to retreat, rushing past Henry. Overwhelmed with fear and confusion, Henry reaches out to a fleeing soldier, hoping to understand what went wrong. But the man is frantic, yelling at Henry to release him and finally hitting him with his rifle when he does not. With a bleeding head, Henry manages to separate himself from the retreating crowd. He encounters a friendly stranger who shares news of the battle and guides him back to his regiment. However, as Henry heads towards his regiment's campfire and the stranger fades into the woods, he realizes he never actually saw the man's face.

chapter 13

Haunted by the fear of being despised for deserting the battlefield, Henry stumbles towards the fire, carefully stepping around the bodies of his sleeping comrades. Suddenly, a bold voice demands he stop. He identifies the voice as Wilson's, who is on guard duty. Henry lies about being separated from his unit and getting injured while fighting with another group. Wilson quickly hands him over to the corporal. After examining Henry's supposed injury, the corporal concludes that it's just a minor bump caused by a shell grazing his head, as if someone had struck him with a club. Exhausted, Henry observes the camp until Wilson comes back with a coffee canteen. Wilson takes care of Henry, tending to his wound with a moist cloth and providing him with his blanket for the night. Feeling grateful and disoriented, Henry succumbs to sleep.

chapter 14

In the eerie break of dawn, Henry stirs from what feels like a "thousand years" of sleep. The distant sounds of battle echo "deadly persistency." He gazes upon his resting comrades, momentarily mistaking them for corpses, triggering a surge of distress. The bugle's call disrupts the silence, rousing the men. Wilson checks on Henry's condition, to which he responds, "Pretty bad." Observing Wilson, Henry detects a newfound calm confidence replacing the bluster and bravado that once defined him. They converse about the fighting, and Henry reveals Jim Conklin's death. Nearby, a spat breaks out amongst some soldiers. Wilson steps in, diffuses the tension, and gets back to Henry. He shares that the regiment lost over half its soldiers the previous day, but many have since reappeared. They had dispersed in the woods, joining other regiments to fight, just like Henry.

chapter 15

Henry reflects on the past errors he'd committed in secret, which preserved his image as a man. He recalls the yellow envelope Wilson had entrusted him with, a message to his family in the event of his death. He is about to bring it up but changes his mind at the last second. For him, the envelope represents Wilson's former weakness and he feels it could shield him from any awkward questions about his actions on the preceding day. It becomes a safeguard against being exposed as a liar and boosts his confidence. Concerns about the upcoming battles are of no bother to him; he believes he is destined for greatness and invincibility. He feels disdain for his fellow soldiers who had fled the previous day's battle in a panic, while he maintains he'd escaped with careful consideration and honor. Wilson abruptly snaps Henry out of his contemplations, requesting the envelope back. Henry hands it over, causing Wilson to show deep embarrassment. This makes Henry feel sympathetic towards his friend, and greatly superior. He envisions sharing war stories with his mother and a girl from his hometown, convinced his narratives would shatter their naive perceptions of heroism and warfare.

chapter 16

The soldiers reach a network of trenches where Wilson dozes off promptly. Gossip about the battle's progression and enemy action circulates rapidly for a while. Henry briefly spots a line of enemy troops in gray uniforms before his unit is rapidly ushered into the forest. He starts grumbling about the incompetence of his army's command, blaming them for the lack of victories. However, when a fellow soldier ridicules him, Henry keeps quiet, worried that his deceit might be uncovered. The lieutenant guides the troops to a location in the forest, informing them that they'll confront the enemy shortly. As the noise of battle intensifies, the weary men brace themselves for the imminent combat.

chapter 17

During a tense wait, the opposition finally attacks the soldiers in blue. Overcome with intense disgust for the enemy, Henry is absorbed in the fight, endlessly shooting and reloading without backing down. Amid the chaos, he only recognizes his own fury. Eventually, he hears a fellow soldier laugh, making him realize he's shooting aimlessly as the battle has ended and the enemy has retreated. His squad now admires him, praising his exceptional fighting skills. The lieutenant even jokes that if he had ten thousand soldiers as fierce as Henry, the war could be over in a week. Oddly, Henry feels detached from his own heroic actions, as if he awoke to discover he was a knight. The victorious soldiers cheer each other on and discuss the enemy's losses in the fight. Above them, the sun shines brightly in the clear blue sky, only disturbed by a lingering cloud of smoke from the battle.

chapter 18

As the Union soldiers take a break, the battle within the forest grows harsher, the air thick with smoke and the noise of war overpowering. In a brief pause in the fight, they hear their fellow soldier, Jimmie Rogers, screaming in agony. Believing there might be a nearby stream, Wilson and Henry set out to fetch water. Even though they don't find one, they stumble upon a vantage point that reveals a significant part of the ongoing battle. They observe the gathering of the blue-clad troops and a general nearly running over an injured man. As the general and his aides pass by, they overhear their conversation about strengthening a vulnerable spot. When asked which troops he can spare, an officer mentions the 304th—the regiment Henry belongs to—dismissing them as combatants that “fight like a lot ’a mule drivers.”

chapter 19

Henry and Wilson are taken aback when they overhear their regiment's potential downfall being discussed. They rush to inform their regiment about the anticipated charge, keeping to themselves the bleak predictions about their survival. They confront the impending attack with stoic acceptance. In their advance, Henry witnesses the grisly spectacle of fellow soldiers being torn apart by enemy fire. Their advance is halted twice, only to be restarted by their lieutenant. Amidst the chaos, Henry spots the regiment's flag and instinctively follows it. The bearer of the flag is struck down, prompting Henry and Wilson to seize the flag and continue their charge.

chapter 20

Having taken the flag from the downed color bearer, Henry and Wilson notice their regiment retreating toward them, their charge thwarted by the enemy. The infuriated lieutenant shouts, prompting the men to retreat to a tree line, shielded from the lethal gunfire. Henry manages to wrestle the flag from Wilson and becomes its carrier. As they traverse the battlefield under a hail of bullets and encircled by fortified enemy troops, Henry harbors thoughts of triumph as a fitting comeuppance for the officer who earlier insulted them. However, the harsh reality that victory might elude them fills him with shame and anger. Despite the decimating state of the regiment and the scattering men, Henry waves the flag high, encouraging them to persist. Just as the enemy is about to overrun Henry's regiment, they manage to mount a commendable defense. Henry finds solace in the fact that if the enemy is going to win, they won't do so easily. As his regiment engages in fierce combat, he derives assurance from their apparent confidence. In the ensuing battle, Henry's regiment manages to push the enemy to retreat. This boosts the morale of Henry's squad, restoring their self-belief, and they continue with renewed vigor.

chapter 21

Finally, the regiment retreats to the safety of its army's fortified place. They face ridicule from other soldiers for their near victory, “about a hundred feet this side of a very pretty success," which leaves Henry's team filled with helpless anger. Observing the battlefield from the safety, Henry is surprised to find that the seemingly vast distance is actually short—the tree line, which represented a dangerous escape route, appears deceptively close now. Amidst his reflections, the officer who had previously insulted the men as mule drivers confronts the colonel, calling the soldiers “mud diggers." This provocation stirs anger among the soldiers, leading to murmurs against the blue army's arrogant and incapable leaders. While the soldiers vent their frustrations, a few men with gleaming excitement in their eyes approach Henry and Wilson. They share a heard conversation between the colonel and lieutenant, praising Henry and Wilson as the regiment's finest fighters. Although they feign indifference, both men feel a rush of satisfaction and a renewed vigor for the ongoing war.

chapter 22

Lauded, Henry is bolstered for the ensuing fight, which he confronts with “serene self-confidence.” The armies assemble for yet “another attack in the pitiless monotony of conflicts.” As the turmoil continues, Henry's unit diminishes. Heavy casualties and fatigue hinder the regiment, causing Henry to momentarily become a passive observer. Unaware of his inaction, he is engrossed in the surrounding events: “He did not know that he breathed; that the flag hung silently over him, so absorbed was he.” Unyielding, he firmly resolves not to flee, contemplating that his corpse would serve as final vindication against the one who insulted the 304th Regiment as “mule drivers” and “mud diggers.” Amidst the buzzing bullets, he notices the dwindling numbers of the regiment. Several of the men in blue are wounded, some gruesomely falling. Observing that Wilson and the lieutenant remain unscathed, he also realizes the weakening firepower of the regiment.

chapter 23

He'd faced death, and found it to be just that - death. The commanders mandate an all-out attack on the fence, which the soldiers execute with their remaining energy. As he dashes through the smoke holding the flag, Henry vaguely sees many enemy troops fleeing in fear of their blue onslaught. Only a resolute few stand their ground. Amid the conflict, Henry notices the enemy flag-bearer is hurt. Believing seizing this enemy flag, the "craved treasure of mythology", would be a monumental triumph, he dashes toward him. Both he and Wilson reach for the flag together, with Wilson managing to snatch it from the weakened enemy's grip. Ultimately, the gray soldiers are ousted from the fence, triggering celebrations in Henry's unit. They even manage to capture four enemies - one who insults them, one who converses with curiosity, one who silently stares ahead, and one who seems humiliated at his capture. Henry lays down comfortably in a long strip of grass, engaging in a satisfied chat with Wilson regarding their accomplishments.

chapter 24

Eventually, the regiment is commanded to return towards the river. As Henry moves, he reflects on his war experiences and chides himself for his initial conduct. He undergoes a "subtle change," jubilant about his recent battlefield bravery but disturbed by his initial fear and his desertion of the ragged man. Through considering his victories and setbacks, Henry manages to perceive his life from a broader viewpoint, to "criticize [these deeds] with some correctness.” He finally distances himself from the guilt arising from his initial self-centered acts. As heavy rain starts to fall, Henry grins, picturing a world filled with beauty, joy, and everlasting tranquility. He senses a "quiet manhood” inside him, while over the river a symbolic beam of sunshine pierces the clouds.

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